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  • ETF Focus: Positive buzz sends first marijuana ETF sharply higher in early days of trading, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: MarketWatch.com - bitcoin :: RSS
    The fund has amassed strong inflows and trading—and seen big gains—in its first days on the marketWith less than a week of even having a product on the market, Horizons ETF Management may be one of the most successful marijuana dealers in history. Read more
  • Set BCLog::LIBEVENT correctly for old libevent versions., par jnewbery, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: Commits - bitcoin:master :: RSS
    Set BCLog::LIBEVENT correctly for old libevent versions. Read more jnewbery
  • [rpc] Add logging RPC, par jnewbery, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: Commits - bitcoin:master :: RSS
    [rpc] Add logging RPC Adds an RPC to get and set currently active logging categories. Read more jnewbery
  • allow libevent logging to be updated during runtime, par jnewbery, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: Commits - bitcoin:master :: RSS
    allow libevent logging to be updated during runtime Read more jnewbery
  • Exscudo, Cryptocurrency Financial Services Provider Releases its First Video Message, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: Alltop RSS :: RSS
    Bitcoin Press Release: The leaders of Exscudo – a cryptocurrency financial service provider, tell the audience more about the project in their new video. April 10, 2017, Tallinn, Estonia – The cryptocurrency linked financial services platform, Exscudo announces the release of the latest interview video featuring the top managers. In the video, Alex Sitnikov (CTO), [...]
    The post Exscudo, Cryptocurrency Financial Services Provider Releases its First Video Message appeared first on Bitcoin PR Buzz. Read more
  • Exscudo, Cryptocurrency Financial Services Provider Releases its First Video Message, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: Alltop - bitcoin :: RSS
    Bitcoin Press Release: The leaders of Exscudo – a cryptocurrency financial service provider, tell the audience more about the project in their new video. April 10, 2017, Tallinn, Estonia – The cryptocurrency linked financial services platform, Exscudo announces the release of the latest interview video featuring the top managers. In the video, Alex Sitnikov (CTO), [...]
    The post Exscudo, Cryptocurrency Financial Services Provider Releases its First Video Message appeared first on Bitcoin PR Buzz. Read more
  • Merge #9725: CValidationInterface Cleanups, par laanwj, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: Commits - bitcoin:master :: RSS
    Merge #9725: CValidationInterface Cleanups b1a6d4c Take a CTransactionRef in AddToWalletIfInvolvingMe to avoid a copy (Matt Corallo) 1c95e2f Use std::shared_ptr instead of boost::shared_ptr in ScriptForMining (Matt Corallo) 91f1e6c Remove dead-code tracking of requests for blocks we generated (...) Read more laanwj
  • Everything You Need To Know About Dollar-Denominated Cryptocurrencies, par The Foundation for Economic Education, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: ValueWalk » Bitcoin :: RSS
    A well-known obstacle to the greater popularity of Bitcoin as a medium of payment is the high volatility of its exchange value. This volatility results from its built-in quantity commitment: because the number of Bitcoins in existence stays on a programmed path, variations in the real demand to hold Bitcoin must be accommodated entirely by variations in its unit value. When demand goes up, there is no quantity increase to dampen the rise in price; and vice-versa for a fall in demand.
    Not surprisingly, several cryptocurrency developers have thought of creating a cryptocurrency with a price commitment–namely a pegged exchange rate with the US dollar–rather than a quantity commitment, in hopes of greater popularity. The aim is to create a system in which dollar-denominated payments can be made with the ease, security, and low cost of Bitcoin payments, but without the exchange-rate risk.

    New Digital Assets


    The development of “Blockchain 2.0” platforms has enabled the launching of a variety of new digital assets, including such dollar-pegged (and euro-pegged and gold-pegged) currencies. As we will see, the histories of early (2014-2016) dollar-pegged cryptocurrencies show a series of flops. But one project, Tether, has become a late-blooming success.
    Tether had $55 million in circulation as of March 29, 2017, making it the #13 largest cryptocurrency. To keep this size in perspective, a brick-and-mortar US institution with $55 million in deposits is a tiny bank or a mid-size credit union, and Tether is currently only 1/300th the size of Bitcoin.
    The Tether white paper explains in more detail the motivation for developing a dollar-pegged cryptocurrency by listing advantages to individuals using it for dollar-denominated transactions rather than using dollars held in “legacy bank” accounts:
    • Transact in USD/fiat value, pseudonymously, without any middlemen/intermediaries
    • Cold store USD/fiat value by securing one’s own private keys
    • Avoid the risk of storing fiat on [cryptocurrency] exchanges–move crypto­fiat in and out of exchanges easily
    • Avoid having to open a fiat bank account to store fiat value

    In sum, “Anything one can do with Bitcoin as an individual one can also do with” a dollar-pegged cryptocurrency, namely, “avoid credit card [or debit card] fees,” maintain greater privacy, “remit payments globally” more cheaply, and access blockchain financial services.
    But what is the claimed advantage over using Bitcoin? It is the expectation of wider acceptance in payments, because of the advantages to merchants of accepting a dollar-pegged cryptocurrency over accepting Bitcoin in a US-dollar-dominated economy:
    • Price goods in USD/fiat value rather than Bitcoin (no moving conversion rates/purchase windows)
    • Avoid conversion from Bitcoin to USD/fiat and associated fees and processes

    The Flops


    First we consider the projects that have flopped. Three projects were launched in September 2014: CoinoUSD, NuBits, and BitUSD. Their pegging mechanisms were different, and are difficult to describe briefly (partly because they were not all entirely transparent), but two common features are important to note.
    • The rate-pegging mechanisms were not programmed into a source code, like Bitcoin’s quantity commitment, but relied on non-programmed policy actions by a trusted central authority.
    • None used the traditional currency pegging method of having the issuer hold reserves in physical dollars or dollar-denominated debt securities. (On the NuBits mechanism see this critique by a BitUSD promoter. On the BitUSD mechanism see this critique by the CoinoUSD developer.)

    We can examine the fortunes of each project by looking at its price and “market capitalization” (value-in-circulation) history on the cryptocurrency tracking site CoinMarketCap.com.

    CoinoUSD


    CoinoUSD, which began trading in December 2014, was developed by a for-profit payments firm called Coinomat and built on the blockchain of the NXT cryptocurrency. (In November 2014 NXT was the #6 cryptocurrency with a market cap of $19 million; currently it ranks #38 with a market cap around $13 million.)
    CoinoUSD reached a market cap plateau of $2.7 million in early 2016, but shut down in early 2016, due to a “payout glitch” that flooded customers with free CoinoUSD units, making it impossible to maintain the exchange value at $1. Coinomat announced a reboot in which the erroneous payout would be reversed and said, “NXTUSD will replace CoinoUSD completely, and enhance it,” but this appears not to have happened. Since then it has had a market cap of zero, and its webpage at the Coinomat site declares it “disabled until further notice.”
    Cryptocurrencies
    Cryptocurrencies

    NuBits


    The history of NuBits, also a for-profit enterprise, shows that it gained only a similarly small market foothold. Its market cap plateaued early on below $2.5 million, and since April 2015 has remained below $1 million. In June 2016 NuBits had a devaluation crisis, with the price falling to 20 cents. Its rate-pegging intervention mechanism, despite claiming many layers of reinforcement, was not robust and failed.
    Although the price later returned to par, today NuBits shows very little market activity. Since January 2017 the market cap has hovered around only $135,000, with daily trading volume in the neighborhood of $2000.

    BitUSD


    BitUSD is built on the blockchain platform of the cryptocurrency BitSharesX. Its highest market cap plateau was around $1 million soon after introduction, but it fell to below $200,000 in April 2015 and is currently less than $110,000.

    BitUSD uses a novel pegging system that so far has proven robust. A piece promoting BitUSD emphasizes that “the bitUSD is an asset that is not backed by real dollar in someone’s bank account.” (It claims this a virtue: “We cannot trust anyone to hold and secure a physical asset so that people can redeem it eventually. History has repeatedly shown: It doesn’t work!” In fact, history shows the major banks in unhampered banking systems routinely justifying the public’s trust by redeeming their liabilities on demand for decades. Paypal works on the same supposedly non-working model, backed by Paypal’s dollar deposits at Wells Fargo Bank.)
    By contrast, BitUSD are created through collateralized forward currency contracts. The network provides an escrow service that credibly ensures repurchase (or “redemption”) of the BitUSD at or near par. Someone who wants to acquire BitUSD, say in order to buy from a seller who prefers a dollar-denominated medium of exchange, offers a contract: so many BitShares (hereafter BTS) for a certain amount of new BitUSD.
    Under the BitShare network rules, the acquirer must not only pay at the outset in BTS but also agree to post collateral in BTS equal to the value of the bid. If the bid is accepted by another network participant, explains the BitUSD white paper, “the collateral and purchase price are held by the network until the BitUSD is redeemed” by some third party repurchasing it. The acquirer of BitUSD thus puts 200% collateral into a contract “that only allows access to these BTS when the BitUSD are paid back.” In effect the acquirer is shorting the dollar price of BTS.
    “BitUSD is an asset used to hedge a position in BitShares against changes in the price of USD and is not supposed to have an exact 1:1 exchange rate with USD.”
    Note that the new BitUSD units are initially 200% collateralized not in dollar-denominated assets, but in BTS. If BTS fall 25% or more against
    The post Everything You Need To Know About Dollar-Denominated Cryptocurrencies appeared first on ValueWalk. Read more The Foundation for Economic Education
  • VOISE Ethereum Music Sharing and Monetization Platform Announces ICO Crowdsale, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: Alltop RSS :: RSS
    Bitcoin Press Release: The Ethereum blockchain-based decentralized music streaming and download platform VIOSE to start crowdsale on May 6, 2017. April 10, 2017 – VOISE, the blockchain-based platform dedicated to artists and music lovers has announced the launch of its Voisium tokens (VSM) crowdsale, starting May 6, 2017. The crowdsale is part of VOISE platform’s [...]
    The post VOISE Ethereum Music Sharing and Monetization Platform Announces ICO Crowdsale appeared first on Bitcoin PR Buzz. Read more
  • VOISE Ethereum Music Sharing and Monetization Platform Announces ICO Crowdsale, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: Alltop - bitcoin :: RSS
    Bitcoin Press Release: The Ethereum blockchain-based decentralized music streaming and download platform VIOSE to start crowdsale on May 6, 2017. April 10, 2017 – VOISE, the blockchain-based platform dedicated to artists and music lovers has announced the launch of its Voisium tokens (VSM) crowdsale, starting May 6, 2017. The crowdsale is part of VOISE platform’s [...]
    The post VOISE Ethereum Music Sharing and Monetization Platform Announces ICO Crowdsale appeared first on Bitcoin PR Buzz. Read more
  • Intranets and the Internet, par Tim Swanson, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: Great Wall of Numbers » Bitcoin :: RSS

    It is early into 2017 and at fintech events we can still hear a variety of analogies used to describe what blockchains and distributed ledger technology (DLT) are and are not.
    One of the more helpful ones is from Peter Shiau (formerly of Blockstack.io) who used an automobile analogy involving the Model T to describe magic internet chains:1
    The Ford Motor Company is well known for its production engineering innovation that gave us the Model T. To this day, the Ford Model T is one of the best selling automobiles of all-time thanks to the sheer number produced and affordability for American middle class families.  And while it was remarkable that Ford was able to sell so many cars, it is well understood Ford’s true innovation was not the Model T but in fact the modern assembly line.
    It was this breakthrough that enabled Ford to build a new car every 93 minutes, far more quickly than any of its competitors. Not unlike the Model T, cryptocurrencies like Bitcaoin, are every bit the product of a similar innovative process breakthrough that today we call a “blockchain.”
    Carrying the analogy a little further, what is even more powerful about this modern equivalent of the assembly line is that it is not just useful for building cars but also vans and trucks and boats and planes. In just the same way, a blockchain is not just useful for creating a cryptocurrency, but can be applied to a many different processes that multiple parties might rely on to reach agreement on the truth about something.
    Less helpful, but all the same plentiful, are the many red herrings and false equivalences that conferences attendees are subjected to.
    Arguably, the least accurate analogy is that public blockchains can be understood as being “like the internet” while private blockchains “are like intranets”.
    Why is this one so wrong and worthy of comment?
    Because it is exactly backwards.
    For example, if you want to use a cryptocurrency like Bitcoin, you have to use bitcoin; and if you want to use Ethereum, you have to use ether.  They are not interoperable.  You have to use their proprietary token in order play in their walled garden.
    As described in detail below, the internet is actually a bunch of private networks of internet service providers (ISPs) that have legal agreements with the end users, cooperate through “peering” agreements with other ISPs, and communicate via a common, standardized routing protocols such as BGP which publishes autonomous system numbers (ASNs).
    In this respect, what is commonly called “the Internet” is closer to interoperable private, distributed ledger networks sharing a common or interoperable communication technology than anarchic, public cryptocurrency blockchain networks, which behave more like independent isolated networks.
    Or in short: by design, cryptocurrencies are intranet islands whereas permissioned distributed ledgers — with interoperability hooks (“peering” agreements) — are more like the internet.2
    Sidebar
    Let’s do a short hands-on activity to see why the original analogy used at fintech conferences is a false equivalence with implications for how we need to frame the conversation and manage expectations in order to integrate DLT in to our reference and business architecture.
    If you are using a Windows-based PC, open up a Command window.  If you’re using a Mac or Android device, go to a store and buy a Windows-based PC.
    Once you have your Command window open, type in a very simple command:
    tracert: www.google.com
    Wait a few seconds and count the hops as your signal traces the route through various network switches and servers until you finally land on your destination.  From my abode in the SF area, it took 10 hops to land at Google and 7 hops to land at Microsoft.
    If you did this exercise in most developed countries, then the switches and servers your signal zigged and zagged through were largely comprised of privately owned and operated networks called ISPs.  That is to say, what is generally described as “the internet” is just a bunch of privately run networks connected to one another via several types of agreements such as: transit agreements, peering agreements, and interconnect agreements.
    By far the most widely used agreement is still done via the proverbial “handshake.”  In fact, according to a 2012 OECD report, 99.5% of internet traffic agreements are done via handshakes.  There is also depeering, but more on that later.
    What do all these agreements look like in practice?
    According to the 2016 Survey of Internet Carrier Interconnection Agreements (pdf):
    The Internet, or network of networks, consists of 7,557 Internet Service Provider (ISP) or carrier networks, which are interconnected in a sparse mesh. Each of the interconnecting links takes one of two forms: transit or peering. Transit agreements are commercial contracts in which, typically, a customer pays a service provider for access to the Internet; these agreements are most prevalent at the edges of the Internet, where the topology consists primarily of singly connected “leaf” networks that are principally concerned with the delivery of their own traffic. Transit agreements have been widely studied and are not the subject of this report. Peering agreements – the value-creation engine of the Internet – are the carrier interconnection agreements that allow carriers to exchange traffic bound for one another’s customers; they are most common in the core of the Internet, where the topology consists of densely interconnected networks that are principally concerned with the carriage of traffic on behalf of the networks which are their customers.
    Colloquially it is a lot easier to say “I want to use the Internet” instead of saying “I want to connect with 7,557 ISPs interconnected in a sparse mesh.”
    Back to topology, each ISP is able to pass along traffic that originated from other networks, even if these external networks and the traffic therein originate from foreign countries, because the physical systems can speak to one another via standardized transport protocols like TCP and UDP and route via BGP.3 4
    Thus there is no such thing as a physical “internet rail,” only an amalgam of privately and publicly owned networks stitched together.
    And each year there is inevitably tension between one more ISP and consequently depeering takes place.  A research paper published in 2014 identified 26 such depeering examples and noted that while depeering exists:
    Agreements are very quite affair and are not documented for, they are mostly handshake agreements where parties mutually agree  without  any  on  record  documentation.  This  argument is supported by the fact that 141,512 Internet Interconnection Agreements out of 142,210 Internet Agreements examined till March 2011 were Handshake Agreements.
    This is the main reason you do not hear of disputes and disagreements between ISPs, this also dovetails into the “net neutrality” topic which is beyond the scope of this post.
    Intranets
    Just as the internet is an imperfect analogy for blockchains and DLT in general, so is its offspring the “intranet” is a poor analogy for a permissioned blockchains.  As noted above, the internet is a cluster of several thousand ISPs that typically build business models off of a variety of service plans in both the consumer and corporate environments.
    Some of these server plans target corporate environments and also includes building and maintaining “private” intranets.
    What is an intranet?
    An intranet is a private network accessible only to an organization’s staff. Generally a wide range of information and services from the organization’s internal IT systems are available that would not be available to the public from the Internet. (Source)
    And while more and more companies migrate some portion of their operations and work flows onto public and private “clouds,” intranets are expected to be maintained given their continued utility.  From an infrastructure standpoint, notwithstanding that an intranet could be maintained one or more more servers through Software Defined Networks (SDNs), it is still a subset of a mash up of ISPs and mesh networks.
    What does this have to do with magic internet chains?
    A private blockchain or private distributed ledger, is a nebulous term which typically means that the validation process for transactions is maintained by known, identified participants, not pseudonymous participants.  Depending on the architecture, it can also achieve the level of privacy that is associated with an intranet while staying clear of the hazards associated with preserving true pseudonymity.
    Why is the “intranet” analogy so misleading and harmful?
    For multiple reasons.
    For starters, it is not really valid to make a sweeping generalization of all identity-based blockchains and distributed ledgers, as each is architected around specific use-cases and requirements.  For instance, some vendors insist on installing on-premise nodes behind the firewall of an enterprise.  Some vendors setup and run a centralized blockchain, from one or two nodes, for an enterprise. Some others tap into existing operational practices such as utilizing VPN connections.  And others spin up nodes on public clouds in data centers which are then operated by the enterprise.
    There are likely more configurations, but as noted above: from a topological perspective in some cases these private blockchains and distributed ledgers operate within an intranet, or on an ISP, or even as an extranet.
    Fundamentally the biggest difference between using an ISP (“the internet”) and using an intranet is about accessibility, who has access rights.  And this is where identity comes into play: most ISPs require the account holder to provide identification materials for what is effectively KYC compliance.
    Thus while you may be visit a coffee shop like Starbucks who provides “free” access, Starbucks itself is an identified account holder with an ISP and the ISP could remove Starbucks access for violating its terms of service.  Similarly, most coffee shops, airports, schools, etc. require users to accept a terms of service acknowledging that their access can be revoked for violating it.

    Source: FireFox 51.0.1

    In short, both the internet and intranet are in effect part of identity and permission-based networks.  There is no such thing as an identity-less internet, only tools to mask the users identity (e.g., Tor, Peerblock, Whisper).  In the same way that, “private” intranets are a fallacy.
    Anarchic chains, which were designed to operate cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, attempt to create an identity-less network on top of an identifiable network, hence the reason people involved in illicit activities can sometimes be caught.
    Identity
    Interestingly, where the internet analogy does hold up is in how public, anarchic blockchains are no less challenged by the effort and complexity of truly masking identity. I mentioned this in a footnote in the previous post, but it deserves being highlighted once more. Anarchic blockchains inspired by cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, used blocks because Satoshi wanted identity-free consensus (e.g., pseudonymity).  That implies miners can come and go at will, without any kind of registration, which eliminated the choice of using any existing consensus algorithm.
    As a result, Satoshi’s solution was proof-of-work (PoW).  However, PoW is susceptible to collisions (e.g., orphan blocks).  When a collision occurs you have to wait longer to obtain the same level of work done on a transaction. Thus you want to minimize them, which resulted in finding a PoW on average every ten minutes.  This means that in a network with one minute propagation delays, not unlikely in a very large network (BGP sees such propagation times) then you waste ~10% of total work done, which was considered an acceptable loss rate in 2008 when Satoshi was designing and tweaking the parameters of the system.
    Distributed ledgers such as Corda, use a different design and exist precisely as an identified network, where members cannot just come and go at will, and do have to register. With Corda, the team also assumes relatively low propagation times between members of a notary cluster.  One of the key differences between mere PoW (i.e. hashcash) and a blockchain is that in the latter, each block references the prior – thus PoWs aggregate.  It can be tough to do that unless all transactions are visible to everyone and there is a single agreed upon blockchain but if you do not, you will not get enough PoW to yield any meaningful security
    When fintech panels talk about the notion of “open” or “closed” networks, this is really a red herring because what is being ignored is how identity and permission work and are maintained on different types of networks.
    From the standpoint of miner validation, in practice cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin are effectively permission-based: the only entity that validates a transaction is effectively 1 in 20 semi-static pools each day.  And the miners/hashers within those pools almost never individually generate the appropriate/winning hash towards finding a block.  Each miner generates trillions of invalid hashes each week and are rewarded with shares of a reward as the reward comes in.
    And if you want to change something or possibly insert a transaction, you need hashrate to do so.  Not just anyone running a validating node can effect change.
    More to the point, nearly all of these pools and many of the largest miners have self-doxxed themselves.  They have linked their real world identities to a pseudonymous network whose goals were to mask identities via a purposefully expensive PoW process.  As a result, their energy and telecommunication access can be revoked by ISPs, energy companies, and governments.  Therefore calling anarchic or public blockchains “open” is more of a marketing gimmick than anything else at this stage.
    Clarity
    AOL and CompuServe were early, successful ISPs; not intranets.5  Conflating these terms makes it confusing for users to understand the core technology and identify the best fit use-cases. 6
    Alongside the evolution of both the “cloud” and ISP markets, it will be very interesting to watch the evolution of “sovereign” networks and how they seek to address the issue of identity.
    Why?
    Because of national and supranational laws like General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that impacts all network users irrespective of origin.

    For instance, Marley Gray (Principal Program Manager Blockchain at Microsoft) recently explained in an interview (above) how in order to comply with various data regulations (data custody and sovereignty), Microsoft acquired fiber links that do not interact with the “public” internet.  That is to say, by moving data through physically segregated “dark” networks, Microsoft can comply with requirements of its regulated customers.
    And that is what is missing from most fintech panels on this topic: at the end of the day who is the customer and end-user.
    If it is cypherpunks and anarchists, then anarchic chains are built around their need for pseudonymous interactions.  If it is regulated enterprises, then identity-based systems are built around the need for SLAs and so forth.  The two worlds will continue to co-exist, but each network has different utility and comparative advantage.
    Acknowledgements: I would like to thank Mike Hearn, Stephen Lane-Smith, Antony Lewis, Marcus Lim, Grant McDaniel, Emily Rutland, Kevin Rutter, and Peter Shiau for their constructive feedback. This was originally sent to R3 members on March 31, 2017.
    Endnotes
    1. His analogy is reused with permission.
    2. From a network perspective, some of the integration and interop challenges facing DLT platforms could be similar to the harried IPv4 vs IPv6 coexistence over the past decade.  Who runs the validating nodes, the bridges — the links between the chains and ledgers — still has to be sorted out.  One reviewer noted that: If you equate IPv4 (TCP/UDP/ICMP) to DLTv4 where BGPv4 enables IPv4 networks to interact, we need an equivalent for BPGv4, say DLTGPv4 (DLT Gateway Protocol) for DLTv4 fabrics (ISPv4s) to interact and the same thing for IPv6 and DLTv6 where DLTv6 is a different DLT technology than DLTv4.  So the basic challenge here is solving integration of like DLT networks.
    3. Venture capitalists such as Marc Andreessen and Fred Wilson have stated at times that they would have supported or invested in something akin to TCPIPcoins or BGPcoins.  That is to say, in retrospect the missing element from the “internet stack” is a cryptocurrency.  This is arguably flawed on many levels and if attempted, would likely have stagnated the growth and adoption of the internet, see page 18-19.
    4. One reviewer noted that: Because of the IPv4 address restrictions (address space has been allocated – relying on auctions etc for organizations to acquire IPv4 addresses), some sites now only have an IPv6 address.  Most devices today are dual stack (support IPv4 and IPv6), but many ISPs and older devices still only support IPv4 creating issues for individuals to access IPv6 resulting in the development of various approaches for IPv4 to IPv6 (e.g. GW46 – my generic label).  I think, the question with DLTGW46 is whether to go dual stack or facilitate transformation between v4 and v6.
    5. A reviewer who previously worked at AOL in the mid ’90s noted that: “In its early days, AOL was effectively a walled garden.  For example, it had its own proprietary markup language called RAINMAN for displaying content. And access to the internet was carefully managed at first because AOL wanted its members to stay inside where content was curated and cultural norms relatively safer — and also desirable for obvious business reasons.”
    6. One reviewer commented: “In my opinion, the “internet” cannot be created by a single party. It is an emergent entity that is the product of multiple ISPs that agree to peer – thus the World Wide Web. DLT-based and blockchain-based services first need to develop into their own robust ecosystems to serve their own members. Eventually, these ecosystems will want to connect because the value of assets and processes in multiple ecosystems will increase when combined.”
    Send to Kindle
    Read more Tim Swanson
  • MineCoin Announces Rebranding, Second round of the ICO and Bounty Campaign, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: Alltop RSS :: RSS
    Bitcoin Press Release: Blockchain startup MinexSystems, entering the second stage of ICO has launched a new website, rebranded its payments system to MinexCoin. April 10, 2017, Kyiv, Ukraine – The Kyiv-based blockchain development team behind MinexSystems has announced the rebranding of their payment system from “MineCoin” to “MinexCoin”. The company has also upgraded its website [...]
    The post MineCoin Announces Rebranding, Second round of the ICO and Bounty Campaign appeared first on Bitcoin PR Buzz. Read more
  • MineCoin Announces Rebranding, Second round of the ICO and Bounty Campaign, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: Alltop - bitcoin :: RSS
    Bitcoin Press Release: Blockchain startup MinexSystems, entering the second stage of ICO has launched a new website, rebranded its payments system to MinexCoin. April 10, 2017, Kyiv, Ukraine – The Kyiv-based blockchain development team behind MinexSystems has announced the rebranding of their payment system from “MineCoin” to “MinexCoin”. The company has also upgraded its website [...]
    The post MineCoin Announces Rebranding, Second round of the ICO and Bounty Campaign appeared first on Bitcoin PR Buzz. Read more
  • Weekly Price Range Update, par Enky, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: Bitcoin Trading Signals :: RSS
    eng
    XBTUSD daily chart – VWAP + deviation levels

    XBT / USD weekly price range is 1150$-1335$ | The market is still in a strong position above the VWAP and is near the resistance level of the previous week (1235$), if a break materializes above the first resistance level at 1245$ there is room for an attack to the all-time high around 1350 $; as support to my hypothesis there is the fact that the last two bottoms happened at 750$ and 900$, two higher lows reflecting the fact that the underlying trend is still firmly upward and it is causing higher highs and lows. With this logic the next maximum should be above 1300$-1350$.
    The ALMA average is bullish and the RSI has entered overbought zone. From now on there is a tangible risk that a maximum on the daily chart is forming especially if there is a strong increase of volatility.
    In cases of extreme drop the support area is now 700-875 USD.
    ITA version here
    Filed under: weekly range update Read more Enky
  • Do digital currencies spell the end of capitalism?, par Ed Finn, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: Bitcoin | The Guardian :: RSS
    Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin pose a fundamental challenge to the notion of money itself
    It started with the best of intentions: in 2015 a group of programmers inspired by the success of Bitcoin launched a new software platform called Ethereum that allowed users to conduct transactions without a central bank or currency authority using “tokens” called Ether instead of dollars or pounds. Even more exciting, their platform allowed for “smart contracts” so a deal could be made conditional in all sorts of ways, allowing for everything from options contracts tied to future commodity prices to elaborate corporate governance and voting schemes. Having developed this platform and—they thought—worked out the bugs, they decided to create the cleverest smart contract of them all: a “Digital Autonomous Organization” that functions something like a venture capital firm run by algorithm. In 2016 some 11,000 people crowdfunded the DAO with over $150 million in startup funds, many of them developers who had contributed to the core open-source Ethereum codebase.
    And then, just as the experiment was about to get underway, a hacker exploited a flaw in the code to make off with roughly a third of the kitty. What happened next is a kind of parable for the future of value in the age of algorithms. Continue reading... Read more Ed Finn
  • TheRock Bitcoin & Altcoin Exchange Platform Review, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: Alltop RSS :: RSS
    TheRock Bitcoin & Altcoin Exchange Review takes an in-depth look at the website, platform and quality of service of this Digital currency exchange that allows users to deposit and withdraw into one of several different currencies from any other currency they have.
    The post TheRock Bitcoin & Altcoin Exchange Platform Review appeared first on CoinStaker | Cloud Mining Services Monitor. Read more
  • TheRock Bitcoin & Altcoin Exchange Platform Review, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: Alltop - bitcoin :: RSS
    TheRock Bitcoin & Altcoin Exchange Review takes an in-depth look at the website, platform and quality of service of this Digital currency exchange that allows users to deposit and withdraw into one of several different currencies from any other currency they have.
    The post TheRock Bitcoin & Altcoin Exchange Platform Review appeared first on CoinStaker | Cloud Mining Services Monitor. Read more
  • 33% of Americans Can’t Write $500 Emergency Check, 50% of Americans Living Paycheck to Paycheck!, par Stefan B, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: FSN » bitcoin :: RSS
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    from WallStForMainSt

    According to a new financial industry study, 50% of Americans live paycheck to paycheck and 33% of Americans can’t write a $500 emergency check. http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-04…
    This confirms similar surveys from earlier in 2017 and last year in 2016:
    1) https://www.gobankingrates.com/person…
    2) http://money.cnn.com/2017/01/12/pf/am…
    Please visit the Wall St for Main St website here: http://www.wallstformainst.com/
    Follow Jason Burack on Twitter @JasonEBurack
    Follow Wall St for Main St on Twitter @WallStforMainSt
    Commit to tipping us monthly for our hard work creating high level, thought proving content about investing and the economy https://www.patreon.com/wallstformainst
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    Wall St for Main St is also available for personalized investor education and consulting! Please email us to learn more about it! If you want to reach us, please email us at: wallstformainst@gmail.com Read more Stefan B
  • Centerfold Model Exposes Conspiracy, 7 Year Old Dangerous NeoCon: What Really Happened This Week!, par Stefan B, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: FSN » bitcoin :: RSS
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    from WeAreChange

    In this video, we give you all the breaking and latest news from this week. Going over everything that we find important in one video download that will tell you everything you need to know for the week. Of course, we focus our attention on Donald Trump, North Korea, Kim Jong il, U.S Russia relations, Putin, and a lot more.
    Fmr. Congresswoman Cynthia Mckinney Tells All On Trump And Dyncorp
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TvO4a…
    What You Need To Know About The Susan Rice Scandal
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YHHK…
    Visit our MAIN SITE for more breaking news http://wearechange.org/
    PATREON https://www.patreon.com/WeAreChange?a…
    SNAPCHAT: LukeWeAreChange
    FACEBOOK: https://facebook.com/LukeWeAreChange
    TWITTER: https://twitter.com/Lukewearechange
    INSTAGRAM: http://instagram.com/lukewearechange
    STEEMIT: https://steemit.com/@lukewearechange
    OH YEAH since we are not corporate or government WHORES help us out http://wearechange.org/donate
    We take BITCOIN too
    12HdLgeeuA87t2JU8m4tbRo247Yj5u2TVP Read more Stefan B
  • The Cartel’s Upcoming Silver Waterloo? – Updated (in a Big Way)!, par Stefan B, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: FSN » bitcoin :: RSS
    by Andrew Hoffman
    Miles Franklin

    The reason I know Bitcoin is so early in its bull market is that there is literally no one employed to write about it on a full-time basis. Thus, to get information on the topic, I largely have to seek out the tiny handful of “good, smart” Bitcoin people on Twitter and You-Tube. For Precious Metals, you’d think that after a 17-year bull market – in varying degrees, depending on which currency you price them in – there’s be dozens, if not hundreds of commentators to follow; like, in say, the stock market, where thousands of commentators discuss it, in real-time, on a daily basis.
    Yet, I’d count the amount of established PM commentators as no more than 20 – of which, roughly 15 discuss only the meaningless “technicals” that mean NOTHING in the unprecedentedly rigged PM markets.
    Continue Reading at MilesFranklin.com… Read more Stefan B
  • You Wont Believe This Biggest Donald Trump Lie, par Stefan B, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: FSN » bitcoin :: RSS
    from WeAreChange

    In this video, we go over the biggest lies and deception that both Donald Trump and the mainstream media are pushing on the American people with the latest breaking news. As Russia responds and the world awaits the latest moves by Rex Tillerson, Jared Kushner and Donald Trump while Steve Banon is in opposition, this will surely be very interesting times ahead of all of us.
    Full Donald Trump Speech video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AgZAd…
    Visit our MAIN SITE for more breaking news http://wearechange.org/
    PATREON https://www.patreon.com/WeAreChange?a…
    SNAPCHAT: LukeWeAreChange
    FACEBOOK: https://facebook.com/LukeWeAreChange
    TWITTER: https://twitter.com/Lukewearechange
    INSTAGRAM: http://instagram.com/lukewearechange
    STEEMIT: https://steemit.com/@lukewearechange
    OH YEAH since we are not corporate or government WHORES help us out http://wearechange.org/donate
    We take BITCOIN too
    12HdLgeeuA87t2JU8m4tbRo247Yj5u2TVP Read more Stefan B
  • Bitcoin exchange Bitfinex sues Wells Fargo over suspended wire transfers, par Duncan Riley, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: SiliconANGLE » bitcoin :: RSS
    Bitcoin exchange Bitfinex has filed a lawsuit against Well Fargo & Co. and Wells Fargo N.A. after the bank decided to block all incoming wire transfers from Bitfinex made on its behalf.
    Bitfinex (iFinex Inc.) is claiming that Wells Fargo, while allowing its customers to transfer money from their accounts to Bitfinex, is blocking transfers back to those accounts. Specifically, according to the lawsuit, the bank has “suspended U.S. dollar wire transfer operations needed to remit to plaintiff’s customers U. S. dollars that the customers deposited with plaintiffs to purchase digital currency, causing imminent and irreparable harm to plaintiffs.”
    The exchange utilizes four Taiwan-based banks — Hwatai Commercial Bank, KGI Bank, First Commercial Bank and Taishin Bank — to make the transfers. It is alleged that the four banks were informed by Wells Fargo that the bank would not accept and would reject any transfers from Bitfinex’s correspondent accounts but did not contact Bitfinex directly to inform it of the decision or the reasoning behind it.
    “Plaintiffs have received no inquiry or request for information,” Bitfinex said in the lawsuit. “If any request had been made, plaintiffs would have fully cooperated and responded to same. Plaintiffs have a long history of responding timely to requests for information from the Taiwan-Based Banks and, indirectly, from any correspondent banks.”
    In addition, the exchange pointed out that it works cooperatively with U.S. law enforcement agencies “to uphold the highest standards of integrity and compliance with regulatory law.”
    Although the inability to transfer funds to Wells Fargo customers in the United States may seem like a mere inconvenience for Bitfinex, according to The Merkle the suspension of transfers to the bank has resulted a freeze on close to $130 million in customer funds.
    Bitfinex is seeking the maximum possible financial penalty as well as a court order for Wells Fargo to cease interfering with wire transfers.
    Photo: jeepersmedia/Flickr

    The post Bitcoin exchange Bitfinex sues Wells Fargo over suspended wire transfers appeared first on SiliconANGLE. Read more Duncan Riley
  • Bitcoin exchange Bitfinex sues Wells Fargo over suspended wire transfers, par Duncan Riley, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: SiliconANGLE » bitcoin :: RSS
    Bitcoin exchange Bitfinex has filed a lawsuit against Well Fargo & Co. and Wells Fargo N.A. after the bank decided to block all incoming wire transfers from Bitfinex made on its behalf.
    Bitfinex (iFinex Inc.) is claiming that Wells Fargo, while allowing its customers to transfer money from their accounts to Bitfinex, is blocking transfers back to those accounts. Specifically, according to the lawsuit, the bank has “suspended U.S. dollar wire transfer operations needed to remit to plaintiff’s customers U. S. dollars that the customers deposited with plaintiffs to purchase digital currency, causing imminent and irreparable harm to plaintiffs.”
    The exchange utilizes four Taiwan-based banks — Hwatai Commercial Bank, KGI Bank, First Commercial Bank and Taishin Bank — to make the transfers. It is alleged that the four banks were informed by Wells Fargo that the bank would not accept and would reject any transfers from Bitfinex’s correspondent accounts but did not contact Bitfinex directly to inform it of the decision or the reasoning behind it.
    “Plaintiffs have received no inquiry or request for information,” Bitfinex said in the lawsuit. “If any request had been made, plaintiffs would have fully cooperated and responded to same. Plaintiffs have a long history of responding timely to requests for information from the Taiwan-Based Banks and, indirectly, from any correspondent banks.”
    In addition, the exchange pointed out that it works cooperatively with U.S. law enforcement agencies “to uphold the highest standards of integrity and compliance with regulatory law.”
    Although the inability to transfer funds to Wells Fargo customers in the United States may seem like a mere inconvenience for Bitfinex, according to The Merkle the suspension of transfers to the bank has resulted a freeze on close to $130 million in customer funds.
    Bitfinex is seeking the maximum possible financial penalty as well as a court order for Wells Fargo to cease interfering with wire transfers.
    Photo: jeepersmedia/Flickr

    The post Bitcoin exchange Bitfinex sues Wells Fargo over suspended wire transfers appeared first on SiliconANGLE. Read more Duncan Riley
  • In Five Years the Bitcoin Hard Fork Will Be Just a Blip – Timothy Delmastro Interview, par Stefan B, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: FSN » bitcoin :: RSS
    from CrushTheStreet

    Subscribe to our Free Financial Newsletter:
    http://crushthestreet.com
    It’s time for more Digital Currency talk at Crush The Street, today we have Timothy Delmastro the director of Magic Money: The Bitcoin Revolution.
    Will the problems Bitcoin faces hinder its growth or will the free market come together in the eleventh hour and hash out a solution…
    We go over Timothy’s opinion on the rising popularity in altcoins, hard fork potential and the future likelihood of a mainstream Bitcoin!
    TOPICS IN THIS INTERVIEW:
    01:30 What Inspired Magic Money
    03:15 Bitcoin Overcoming its Obstacles
    05:10 Hard fork Hype or Reality?
    06:25 Is Bitcoin Still Undervalued?
    08:50 Where Will Bitcoin Become Most Accepted?
    10:10 Manipulation in Bitcoin
    11:40 Timothy’s Altcoin Opinions!
    14:25 How to Watch Magic Money and Tips Read more Stefan B
  • Facebook Messenger AI assistant offers payments suggestions, 10 April 2017

    Monday 10 April 2017 :: Finextra Research Payments channel :: RSS
    Facebook has revamped its AI assistant for Messenger, M, letting it butt into conversations about pa... Read more
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